Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan

Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC) rolled-out in 1999-2000. The approach adopted in this campaign aims at motivating rural households to build toilet facilities and encouraging their use. Thus, the emphasis is on designing strategies to motivate individual households so that they realize the need for good sanitation practices. The campaign aims at not only construction of low cost toilets but also motivating the family members of rural households to use them. In addition, the programme also aims at modifying and improving personal hygiene behaviour. The programme has been re-oriented to focus the sanitation programme for achieving an open defecationfree (ODF) environment. Thus, not only individual households, but also communities, village, schools and AnganwadiCentres have been targeted.

The strategy for implementation of TSC in the State has been 'community led' and 'people centered'. A demand driven approach has been adopted with increased emphasis on awareness creation and demand generation for sanitary facilities at the household, community and institutional levels. The objective has been to have a clean and safe village environment. It is assumed that community mobilization is the key for creating safe and sustainable sanitation services.

TSC is being implemented in association with Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs) at all levels, through social mobilization for construction of toilets and also maintain clean environment by way of safe disposal of wastes. NGOs and other Support Organizations are actively involved in IEC activities on one hand and in providing required hardware for toilet construction through Rural Sanitation Marts (RSM) and Production Centres (PCs) on the other.

There are variations across districts in terms of approaches and strategies adopted and results achieved as well. There are two broad types of approaches in use:

i.         It relies on conventional IEC tools like posters, pamphlets, wall writing, TV, radio, folk media, and inter-personal interaction and which has been popular in most of the districts.

ii.       Some districts have adopted innovative participatory approach called Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) aimed at creating open defecation free communities by engaging them in participatory analysis of their sanitation situation leading to collective local effort.

Behavior Change Communication (BCC) Activities :

To generate awareness among the users, State  and districts are taking up activities like organizing mass rallies, celebrating special days and following up with inter personal communication with the users and potential users. For this purpose AWWs, ASHA workers and Support Organizations join the campaign. School teachers are also being encouraged to teach and promote sanitary habits in the schools. Telecast of AV spots on Sanitation, Nirmal Gram Puraskar and hand washing on TV and Radio Channels goes on from time to time. Publicity on NGP and TSC is also done through print media.

Capacity Building

Training has played an essential role to scale up rural sanitation in Odisha where the project has been implemented. Two key learning have emerged. First, training skills are essential at all levels to implement rural sanitation programme and second a training programme must focus at the local government level for implementation. Capacity building under

School Sanitation & Hygiene Education

School Sanitation and Hygiene Education, widely known as SSHE is a comprehensive programme to ensure child friendly water supply, toilet and hand washing facilities in the schools and promote behavioral change by hygiene education. SSHE not only ensures child's right to have healthy and clean environment but also leads to an effective learning and enrolment of girls in particular, and reduce diseases and worm infestation. At present, SSHE is implemented under Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC) and given special thrust by following the proven route of teacher-children-family-community where child is a change-agent playing an effective role on sustained basis to spread the message of improved sanitary and healthy practices. TSC has made provision for toilet facility and hygiene education in all types of Government Rural Schools i.e. Primary, Upper Primary, Secondary and Higher Secondary schools with emphasis on toilets for girls. During the year all the Govt. primary schools have been covered with toilet facilities.

Nirmal Gram Puraskar (NGP)

Govt. of India had launched NGP to encourage the PRIs to take up rural sanitation promotion and attain 100 percent open defecation free Panchayats. In the last three years NGP has been institutionalized as a tool for social mobilization and has received tremendous response from the Panchayati Raj Institutions. Nirmal Gram Puraskar (NGP) has served as a springboard for mobilising the PRIs not only for sanitation promotion but overall social and economic development in the Panchayats.

NGP is a post achievement award scheme meant for GPs, individuals and organizations. There is considerable prestige attached to it, as it is given by the President of India to winning entities. GPs that qualify are those, which have become open defecation free and fully sanitized. Aspects that constitute the preconditions for NGP application include 100% open defecation free (ODF) status including total coverage of IHLs, 100% school and anganwadi sanitation and a clean village environment.

Recently Government of India in the Ministry of Drinking Water & Sanitation  has come up with a scheme of convergence  between TSC rechristened as Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan with MGNREGS.

It has been decided to launch a massive Gram SabhaSashaktikaranKariyakrama campaign to reach the primary stakeholders in all Gram Panchayats and Revenue villages throughout the State through Gram Sabha and PalliSabha highlighting the various development programmes of the Government.

Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan is a step forward in creating new entitlements of IHLs both for BPL and Identified APL households covering SC/ST, small & marginal farmers, 
landless labourers with homestead land, physically handicapped and families headed by women within a Gram Panchayat. Recognising the importance of Gram 
Panchayat as the centre of activity for promotion of NBA, it is proposed to trigger its implementation through PalliSabhaprogramme.  

PalliSabha during its meeting is to select the list of beneficiaries from among BPl/ APL! Others for construction of IHHLs from the uncovered list. It will decide the 
implementer of the IHHL construction and the whole process of implementation. It will prepare an action plan to make the village Open Defecation Free and 0 & M plan of Drinking Water Supply Programme through Tube wells, Sanitary wells & PWS. It will facilitate formation of VWSC in the revenue village. Gram Sabha will discuss about the annual NBA implementation plan and drinking water supply plan.

Gol has revised the cost of construction of IHHLs from the existing provision of Rs.3500/- to Rs.5500/-. The Gol incentive is Rs.3200/- , GoO share is Rs.1400/- and beneficiary contribution is Rs.900/-- (Cashj kind/ Labour). That apart there is provision of convergence under NREGS to tune of Rs.4500/- covering 20 unskilled and 6 skilled man days for each IHHL.

ZillaParisad and DWSM will coordinate construction and use of toilets through saturation outcome to convert as many GPs as possible into Open Defecation Free status. IEC materials developed by DWSM and OSWSM shall be made available to all 
GPs/Blocks by DWSM before PalliSabhajGramSabha.


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