About the Programme
The Rural Drinking Water Supply sector started in 1972-73 with the launch of Accelerated Rural Water Supply Programme (ARWSP) by the Govt. of India.
The second generation programme was launched in 1991-92 as Rajiv Gandhi National Drinking Water Mission. With the involvement of community in planning, implementation and management of drinking water supply schemes the Sector Reform Projects came up in 1999-2000 as third generation programme which later turned to Swajaldharain 2002.
To emphasize on ensuring sustainability of water availability in terms of potability, adequacy, convenience, affordability and equity with decentralized approach of involving PRI and community organizations the fourth generation programme viz. National Rural Drinking Water Programme (NRWDP) has come into force since 01.04.2009 with a vision "Safe Drinking Water for all, at all times in rural areas."
From time immemorial provision of drinking water has always been considered as the holiest work in our scriptures. Over the years the RWSS Organization has been successful in providing at least one safe source of drinking water in all rural habitations.
Now it is felt that in Odisha, coverage of rural population by PWS schemes was negligible as compared to many other States. It was, therefore, decided to go for PWS schemes and house hold connection in a big way.
"Jalamani" scheme has been launched to provide value & quality addition to the ongoing rural water supply programme in Schools. 3460 Schools of the State have been provided with safe and potable drinking water in the year 2011-12 under this programme.
National Rural Drinking Water Programme :
Rural drinking water supply facilities are being looked after by RWS&S organization since 1991. However, the management of drinking water supply projects has been transferred to PRIs w.e.f. 21st Oct, 2006 for their management, operation and maintenance. Mostly, provision of drinking water supply to the rural population is made through hand pump tube wells and piped water supply schemes. Under the modified NRDWP programme, the drinking water supply projects are implemented under the following components:
Coverage- Priority has been given to provide safe drinking water to "Not Covered" (NC) habitations followed by coverage of "Partially Covered"(PC) habitations. 45% of the annual NRDWP funds is earmarked for this purpose which is spent for PWS schemes alongwithinstallation of Spot Sources ( Hand pump tube wells/sanitary wells). The Govt. of India & Govt. of Orissa share the cost in the ratio of 50:50.
Water Quality- To provide safe alternative sources of drinking water supply in quality affected habitations, priority has been accorded to Fluoride affected habitations followed by salinity and iron contamination. 20% of the annual NRDWP funds is earmarked for this purpose. The sharing of cost between Govt. of India & Govt. of Orissa is in the ratio of 50:50.
Sustainability - To ensure lifeline drinking water security under all circumstances and at all times. Maximum 10% of the NRDWP fund is allocated for sustainabilty measure and the centr-shate sharing pattern is 100:0.
Support activities- Water quality monitoring and surveillance (Water testing laboratories), communication and capacity development ( CCDU), Management of Information System (MIS) & Computerization are also essential activities. 5% of NRDWP fund is earmarked for this purpose.
O&M- 10% of NRDWP fund can be utilized for operation and maintenance of existing rural water supply systems which are yet to be transferred to the PRIs for a varieties of reasons. But the sharing of cost between Central Govt. and State Govt. will be in the ratio of 50:50.
Jalmani- The purpose is to supply safe drinking water to rural schools with standalone water purification system with 100% Govt. of India funding.
Rural water supply scheme envisages provision of piped water supply schemes, spot sources from funds provided under different ongoing programmes/schemes and the Calamity Relief Fund (CRF). The hand pump tube well programme continues to focus on Coverage of NC and problematic PC habitations.
The average life span of a hand pump tube well is about 10 years (Sources: Handbook on Technology and Water Quality for Sustainability published by the Department of Drinking water Supply, Ministry of Rural Development during March, 2004). Annually, an estimated 4-5% of the tube wells are becoming permanently defunct which need to be condemned and replaced in a systematic manner.
Priority was given to provide drinking water to NC habitations, quality affected habitations and P.C category habitations. For the funds received from the GoI under NRDWP, matching share is being provided by the Government of Orissa under State Plan on 50:50 basis.
Sustained coverage of rural habitations with the stipulated norms of drinking water supply depends not only on the quantity of water available but also on the quality of water. The emphasis is, therefore, on participatory approach. Selection of affordable drinking water schemes as per local demand, technology backup with sound R&D inputs offering cost effective solutions to problems encountered on the ground and community participation in the planning, designing, implementation, operation and maintenance of the schemes are extremely critical for sustainable coverage.
Water Quality : A New Horizon
Government has made significant interventions to improve the quality of drinking water in rural areas. Until recently, activities relating to water quality were limited to testing of water sources at the time of commissioning the PWS Projects and provision of alternative water supply for areas where occurrence of Fluoride, salinity and Iron in ground water is beyond the permissible limit.
To ensure quality testing, field test kits (FTKs) have been provided and testing is being conducted at grass root level to assess the quality of drinking water.
The action points are:
Monitoring and surveillance of water quality with appropriate institutional framework.
Integration of community water supply projects with hygiene education and sanitation.
Participation of the users in water quality monitoring and surveillance and developing necessary competencies for participation from within the community.
Dissemination of technological solution to tackle water quality problems.
Rural Water Quality Monitoring and Surveillance :
Govt. has made significant interventions to improve the availability of drinking water in rural areas. Activities relating to water quality were limited to testing of water sources at the time of commissioning the PWS projects and provision of alternative water supply through Sub-Mission projects for areas where occurrence of Fluoride, salinity and Iron in ground water is beyond the permissible limit. The above programme would be implemented at three levels i.e the State level, District level and G.P. level.
To detect the contamination in water all the District level laboratories and State Level Laboratories have been provided with additional building infrastructures, State of Art, equipment, computers etc. All the District Level Laboratories have been provided with new equipment, furniture etc. The District level laboratories have been computerized providing necessary facilities. The FTKs have already been provided at the GP level to test the water samples at village level.
All flood affected areas will be covered with raised platform tube wells in a phased manner.
Steps have been taken to cover all GP HQRs with piped water supply. The habitations where PWS projects having no overhead tanks will be provided with storage based stand posts of 2000 ltr /1000 ltr.